Based on the UN Habitat Programme definition, these are defined as: i) residential areas where a group of housing units has been constructed on land to which the occupants have no legal claim; ii) unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations. iii) the neighbourhoods usually lack, or are cut off from, basic services and city infrastructure Habitat III issue papers: 22 – informal settlements.
There is a relationship between the growth of informal settlement and slums and the lack of adequate housing and land. While private sector investment in housing has been steady over the years, this investment has not translated into pro-poor, affordable housing Habitat III issue papers: 22 – informal settlements.
They face challenges of food security, health services, water, sanitation and threats of eviction due to insecurity of tenure. They are Socio-spatially excluded where processes that contribute to the geographic marginalization of particular individuals and groups because of where they live and who they are.
All the informal settlements in Mombasa